BITUMEN


BITUMEN
BITUMEN (Heb. חֵמָר, hemar and כֹּפֶר, kofer; LXX), a black, flammable substance which becomes viscous and absorbent on heating. It occurs in almost every part of the world, including Mesopotamia, Iran, and Israel, and is found in various natural forms: in pure form, as in the Dead Sea, where it floats and collects along the coast; as an ore in sandstone; and in semi-solid and fluid forms. The "pits" in the Valley of Siddim referred to in Genesis 14:10 were probably bitumen quarries. In Mesopotamia bitumen was used in building as a mortar which at the same time soaked into the porous bricks, making them stronger. Bitumen was employed too for waterproofing boats, for constructing model boats for cultic purposes, and for sealing water ducts and irrigation canals. It was used in this way to caulk Noah's ark (Gen. 6:14) and the basket which carried Moses (Ex. 2:3). Whether used for strengthening bricks or for sealing against water, bitumen was mixed with sand, chalk, plaster, or with its own ore, since in its pure form it has a low melting point and will not harden unless amalgamated with another mineral. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: EM, 3 (1965), 187–90 (incl. bibl.); Staples, in: IDB, 1 (1962), 444. (Ze'ev Yeivin)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Bitumen — is a mixture of organic liquids that are highly viscous, black, sticky, entirely soluble in carbon disulfide, and composed primarily of highly condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Naturally occurring or crude bitumen is a sticky, tar like… …   Wikipedia

  • bitumen — BITÚMEN s.n. Material bogat în hidrocarburi, provenit din transformarea în condiţii naturale a cerii şi a răşinii de origine vegetală. – Din germ. Bitumen, lat. bitumen. Trimis de paula, 21.06.2002. Sursa: DEX 98  BITUMENE GAZOÁSE s. pl. v. gaze …   Dicționar Român

  • BITUMEN — sulpuri naturâ vicinum, alibi limus, verba sune Plinii l. 35. c. 15. alibt terra; limus e Iudaeae lacu emergens: terra in Syria, circa Sidonem oppidum maritimum, Spissantur baec utraque et in densitatem coeunt. Est vero liquidum bitumen, sicut… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • bitumen — (del lat. «bitūmen, ĭnis»; ant.) m. Betún. * * * bitumen. (Del lat. bitūmen, ĭnis, betún, voz de or. celta). m. desus. betún (ǁ nombre de varias sustancias compuestas principalmente de carbono e hidrógeno). * * * Mezcla de hidrocarburos similares …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Bitumen — Sn Erdpech per. Wortschatz fach. (16. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus l. bitūmen Erdharz .    Ebenso nndl. bitumen, ne. bitumen, nfrz. bitume, nschw. bitumen. Das lateinische Wort gehört wohl zu dem Wort für Harz , das in Kitt erhalten ist, hat… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Bitumen — Bitumen. Unter B. begreift man die brennzlichen Erdharze u. Erd oder Steinöle, so das Bitumen asphaltum seu judaicum, Sodomae, schwarzes Erdpech, Judenpech, Meerpech, Asphalt, welches vorzüglich an Ufern des Todtenmeeres, auf der Insel Trinidad,… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • bitumen — mid 15c., from L. bitumen asphalt, probably, via Oscan or Umbrian, from Celtic *betu birch, birch resin (Cf. Gaulish betulla birch, used by Pliny for the tree supposedly the source of bitumen) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Bitumen — Bi*tu men, n. [L. bitumen: cf. F. bitume. Cf. {B[ e]ton}.] 1. Mineral pitch; a black, tarry substance, burning with a bright flame; Jew s pitch. It occurs as an abundant natural product in many places, as on the shores of the Dead and Caspian… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Bitūmen — (lat.), 1) (Min.), organisches, kohlenstoffreiches Mineral; es ist fest od. flüssig u. verbrennt mit stark rußender Flamme; man unterscheidet: a) Erdöl (Naphtha, Steinöl, Bergtheer Bergöl), flüssig, farblos bis schwärzlichbraun, von starkem… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • bitùmen — m 〈N bitùmeni〉 1. {{001f}}u užem smislu crn neisparljiv ostatak pri destilaciji nafte (asfaltni bitumen) i prirodni asfalt 2. {{001f}}〈mn〉 zajednički naziv za neke smjese organskih spojeva koje su nastale raspadanjem organskih praostataka,… …   Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika


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